In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll. As chlorophyll is responsible for the green color of leaves, chlorotic leaves are pale, yellow, or yellow-white. The affected plant has little or no ability to manufacture carbohydrates through photosynthesis and may die unless the cause of its chlorophyll insufficiency is treated and this may lead to a plant diseases called rusts, although some chlorotic plants, such as the albino Arabidopsis thaliana mutant ppi2, are viable if supplied with exogenous sucrose.

Chlorosis is derived from the Greek khloros meaning 'greenish-yellow', 'pale green', 'pale', 'pallid', or 'fresh'.

In viticulture, the most common symptom of poor nutrition in grapevines is the yellowing of grape leaves caused by chlorosis and the subsequent loss of chlorophyll. This is often seen in vineyard soils that are high in limestone such as the Italian wine region of Barolo in the Piedmont, the Spanish wine region of Rioja and the French wine regions of Champagne and Burgundy. In these soils the grapevine often struggles to pull sufficient levels of iron which is a needed component in the production of chlorophyll.

Chlorosis is typically caused when leaves do not have enough nutrients to synthesise all the chlorophyll they need. It can be brought about by a combination of factors including:

* a specific mineral deficiency in the soil, such as iron,magnesium or zinc
* deficient nitrogen and/or proteins
* a soil pH at which minerals become unavailable for absorption by the roots
* poor drainage (waterlogged roots)
* damaged and/or compacted roots
* pesticides and particularly herbicides may cause chlorosis, both to target weeds and occasionally to the crop being treated.
* exposure to sulphur dioxide
* ozone injury to sensitive plants
* presence of any number of bacterial pathogens, for instance Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis that causes complete chlorosis on Asteraceae
* fungal infection, e.g. Bakanae.
* However, the exact conditions vary from plant type to plant type. For example, Azaleas grow best in acidic soil and rice is unharmed by waterlogged soil.

Specific nutrient deficiencies (often aggravated by high soil pH) may be corrected by supplemental feedings of iron, in the form of a chelate or sulphate, magnesium or nitrogen compounds in various combinations.
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