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ritau
09-04
ritau
Kale, or leaf cabbage, belongs to a group of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) cultivars grown for their edible leaves, although some are used as ornamentals. Kale plants have green or purple leaves, and the central leaves do not form a head (as with headed cabbage). Kales are considered to be closer to wild cabbage than most of the many domesticated forms of Brassica oleracea. Kale originated in the eastern Mediterranean and Asia Minor, where it was cultivated for food beginning by 2000 BCE at the latest. Curly-leaved varieties of cabbage already existed along with flat-leaved varieties in Greece in the 4th century BC. These forms, which were referred to by the Romans as Sabellian kale, are considered to be the ancestors of modern kales. The earliest record of cabbages in western Europe is of hard-heading cabbage in the 13th century. Records in 14th-century England distinguish between hard-heading cabbage and loose-leaf kale. Russian kale was introduced into Canada, and then into the United States, by Russian traders in the 19th century. USDA botanist David Fairchild is credited with introducing kale (and many other crops) to Americans, having brought it back from Croatia, although Fairchild himself disliked cabbages, including kale.At the time, kale was widely grown in Croatia mostly because it was easy to grow and inexpensive, and could desalinate soil. For most of the twentieth century, kale was primarily used in the United States for decorative purposes; it became more popular as an edible vegetable in the 1990s due to its nutritional value. During World War II, the cultivation of kale (and other vegetables) in the U.K. was encouraged by the Dig for Victory campaign. The vegetable was easy to grow and provided important nutrients missing from a diet because of rationing.
Many varieties of kale and cabbage are grown mainly for ornamental leaves that are brilliant white, red, pink, lavender, blue or violet in the interior of the rosette. The different types of ornamental kale are peacock kale, coral prince, kamone coral queen, color up kale and chidori kale. Ornamental kale is as edible as any other variety, but potentially not as palatable. Kale leaves are increasingly used as an ingredient for vegetable bouquets and wedding bouquets. Raw kale is composed of 84% water, 9% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 1% fat (table). In a 100 g (3 1⁄2 oz) serving, raw kale provides 207 kilojoules (49 kilocalories) of food energy and a large amount of vitamin K at 3.7 times the Daily Value (DV) (table). It is a rich source (20% or more of the DV) of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B6, folate, and manganese. Kale is a good source (10–19% DV) of thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, vitamin E and several dietary minerals, including iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Boiling raw kale diminishes most of these nutrients, while values for vitamins A, C, and K, and manganese remain substantial. Kale is a source of the carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin. As with broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, kale contains glucosinolate compounds, such as glucoraphanin, which contributes to the formation of sulforaphane, a compound under preliminary research for its potential to affect human health. Boiling kale decreases the level of glucosinate compounds, whereas steaming, microwaving or stir frying does not cause significant loss. Kale is high in oxalic acid, the levels of which can be reduced by cooking. Kale contains high levels of polyphenols, such as ferulic acid, with levels varying due to environmental and genetic factors.
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ritau
09-01
ritau
Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. The tubers themselves, also called "yams", come in a variety of forms owing to numerous cultivars and related species. The name "yam" appears to derive from Portuguese inhame or Canarian (Spain) ñame, which derived from West African languages during trade. Although in both languages, this name is commonly referred to the plant taro (Colocasia esculenta) from the genus Colocasia, as opposed to Dioscorea. The main derivations borrow from verbs meaning "to eat". True yams have various common names across multiple world regions. A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines providing an edible tuber. They are native to Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Some yams are also invasive plants, often considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. Some 870 species of yams are known, and 95% of these crops are grown in Africa. Yam plants can grow up to 15 m (49 ft) in length and 7.6 to 15.2 cm (3 to 6 in) high. The tuber may grow into the soil up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) deep. The plant disperses by seed.
The edible tuber has a rough skin that is difficult to peel but readily softened by heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink. The majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from white or yellow to purple or pink in mature yams. A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines providing an edible tuber.They are native to Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Some yams are also invasive plants, often considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. Some 870 species of yams are known, and 95% of these crops are grown in Africa. Yam plants can grow up to 15 m (49 ft) in length and 7.6 to 15.2 cm (3 to 6 in) high.The tuber may grow into the soil up to 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) deep.The plant disperses by seed. The edible tuber has a rough skin that is difficult to peel but readily softened by heating. The skins vary in color from dark brown to light pink. The majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". This substance ranges in color from white or yellow to purple or pink in mature yams. Raw yam has only moderate nutrient density, with appreciable content (10% or more of the Daily Value, DV) limited to potassium, vitamin B6, manganese, thiamin, dietary fiber, and vitamin C (table). But raw yam has the highest potassium levels amongst the 10 major staple foods of the world (see nutritional chart). Yam supplies 118 calories per 100 grams. Yam generally has a lower glycemic index, about 54% of glucose per 150 gram serving, compared to potato products.
The protein content and quality of roots and tubers is lower than other food staples, with the content of yam and potato being around 2% on a fresh-weight basis. Yams, with cassava, provide a much greater proportion of the protein intake in Africa, ranging from 5.9% in East and South Africa to about 15.9% in humid West Africa. As a relatively low-protein food, yam is not a good source of essential amino acids. Experts emphasize the need to supplement a yam-dominant diet with more protein-rich foods to support healthy growth in children. Yam is an important dietary element for Nigerian and West African people. It contributes more than 200 calories per person per day for more than 150 million people in West Africa, and is an important source of income. Yam is an attractive crop in poor farms with limited resources. It is rich in starch, and can be prepared in many ways. It is available all year round, unlike other, unreliable, seasonal crops. These characteristics make yam a preferred food and a culturally important food security crop in some sub-Saharan African countries.
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ritau
08-30
ritau
1. Plant produce that you and your family enjoy. To save the most money gardening, select vegetables that you like to eat and would normally buy at the grocery store. Do not plant vegetables that you would not purchase on a regular basis. 2. Choose vegetables that can be preserved, stored or frozen. By selecting vegetables that can be easily canned or frozen, you stretch your garden investment and may consume produce from your garden throughout the year. - Plant cool-weather vegetables like onions, potatoes, carrots, sweet potatoes and winter squash that can be easily stored. - Plant tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, corn, peas and beets that can be canned or frozen. 3. Grow vegetables that provide a high return on investment. Plant vegetables that are expensive to buy in the store, or that you consume in large quantities. Consider options like tomatoes, green beans, onions, peppers, squash, potatoes, peas, lettuce, beets, spinach, carrots, broccoli, cucumbers and Swiss chard. 4. Plant herbs for a high return on investment. In most areas, you can purchase a packet of seeds or a small herb pot for about $1.50, which will produce leaves for an entire growing season. In contrast, fresh herbs at the grocery story typically cost about $3 for a single-use packet.
5. Select herbs that you use for culinary or household purposes. - Plant herbs that you frequently use in the kitchen, such as basil, rosemary, oregano or parsley. You can use the fresh herbs throughout the growing season, and you can dry the herbs for future use. - Plant herbs that you use for household purposes. Herbs like lavender or lemon verbena can be used as air fresheners, added to soaps or infused in oils. 6. Plant seeds for a higher return on investment. A packet of seeds is less expensive than a plant, and the yield is much greater. A seed packet can produce dozens of plants for less than a single established plant or a cell pack of seedlings. 7. Exchange seeds with friends. Because seed packets typically provide more seeds than you need for a single growing season, exchange seeds with gardening friends. By exchanging seeds, you get more varieties of produce and lower your seed costs. 8. Plant produce in stages. Rather than planting an entire crop of seeds at once, plant them in stages over the course of several weeks. This enables you to harvest in stages, and therefore consume the produce over time, rather than all at once. Succession planting allows a constant harvest in your garden, reducing the chance of produce waste. 9. Collect rainwater for irrigation. Purchase a commercially manufactured rain barrel, or modify an existing barrel to collect rain. The collected water can be used to water your garden, reducing your household water bill.
10. Create compost from yard, garden and kitchen waste. Starting a compost pile is an easy way to make free fertilizer. The compost will improve the soil and eliminate the need to purchase commercial fertilizers for your garden. - Collect grass clippings, fallen leaves and kitchen waste like egg shells, coffee grounds, banana peels and leftover vegetables in a corner of your yard. - Rotate the compost using a pitchfork periodically. - Apply the compost to your garden as a free fertilizer.
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ritau
08-27
ritau
Dahlia is a genus of bushy, tuberous, herbaceous perennial plants native to Mexico and Central America. A member of the Asteraceae (formerly Compositae) family of dicotyledonous plants, its garden relatives thus include the sunflower, daisy, chrysanthemum, and zinnia. There are 42 species of dahlia, with hybrids commonly grown as garden plants. Flower forms are variable, with one head per stem; these can be as small as 5 cm (2 in) diameter or up to 30 cm (1 ft) ("dinner plate"). This great variety results from dahlias being octoploids—that is, they have eight sets of homologous chromosomes, whereas most plants have only two. In addition, dahlias also contain many transposons—genetic pieces that move from place to place upon an allele—which contributes to their manifesting such great diversity. The stems are leafy, ranging in height from as low as 30 cm (12 in) to more than 1.8–2.4 m (6–8 ft). The majority of species do not produce scented flowers. Like most plants that do not attract pollinating insects through scent, they are brightly colored, displaying most hues, with the exception of blue. The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963.The tubers were grown as a food crop by the Aztecs, but this use largely died out after the Spanish Conquest. Attempts to introduce the tubers as a food crop in Europe were unsuccessful. Dahlias are perennial plants with tuberous roots, though they are grown as annuals in some regions with cold winters. While some have herbaceous stems, others have stems which lignify in the absence of secondary tissue and resprout following winter dormancy, allowing further seasons of growth. As a member of the Asteraceae, the dahlia has a flower head that is actually a composite (hence the older name Compositae) with both central disc florets and surrounding ray florets. Each floret is a flower in its own right, but is often incorrectly described as a petal, particularly by horticulturists. The modern name Asteraceae refers to the appearance of a star with surrounding rays.
*History Spaniards reported finding the plants growing in Mexico in 1525, but the earliest known description is by Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II, who was ordered to visit Mexico in 1570 to study the "natural products of that country". They were used as a source of food by the indigenous peoples, and were both gathered in the wild and cultivated. The Aztecs used them to treat epilepsy,and employed the long hollow stem of the (Dahlia imperalis) for water pipes. The indigenous peoples variously identified the plants as "Chichipatl" (Toltecs) and "Acocotle" or "Cocoxochitl" (Aztecs). From Hernandez's perception of Aztec, to Spanish, through various other translations, the word is "water cane", "water pipe", "water pipe flower", "hollow stem flower" and "cane flower". All these refer to the hollowness of the plants' stem. Hernandez described two varieties of dahlias (the pinwheel-like Dahlia pinnata and the huge Dahlia imperialis) as well as other medicinal plants of New Spain. Francisco Dominguez, a Hidalgo gentleman who accompanied Hernandez on part of his seven-year study, made a series of drawings to supplement the four volume report. Three of his drawings showed plants with flowers: two resembled the modern bedding dahlia, and one resembled the species Dahlia merki; all displayed a high degree of doubleness.In 1578 the manuscript, entitled Nova Plantarum, Animalium et Mineralium Mexicanorum Historia, was sent back to the Escorial in Madrid; they were not translated into Latin by Francisco Ximenes until 1615. In 1640, Francisco Cesi, President of the Academia Linei of Rome, bought the Ximenes translation, and after annotating it, published it in 1649-1651 in two volumes as Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus Seu Nova Plantarium, Animalium et Mineraliuím Mexicanorum Historia. The original manuscripts were destroyed in a fire in the mid-1600s. "Stars of the Devil" In 1872 J.T. van der Berg of Utrecht in the Netherlands, received a shipment of seeds and plants from a friend in Mexico. The entire shipment was badly rotted and appeared to be ruined, but van der Berg examined it carefully and found a small piece of root that seemed alive. He planted and carefully tended it; it grew into a plant that he identified as a dahlia. He made cuttings from the plant during the winter of 1872-1873. This was an entirely different type of flower, with a rich, red color and a high degree of doubling. In 1874 van der Berg catalogued it for sale, calling it Dahlia juarezii to honor Mexican President Benito Pablo Juarez, who had died the year before, and described it as "...equal to the beautiful color of the red poppy. Its form is very outstanding and different in every respect of all known dahlia flowers.".
This plant has perhaps had a greater influence on the popularity of the modern dahlia than any other. Called "Les Etoiles du Diable" (Stars of the Devil) in France and "Cactus dahlia" elsewhere, the edges of its petals rolled backwards, rather than forward, and this new form revolutionized the dahlia world. It was thought to be a distinct mutation since no other plant that resembled it could be found in the wild. Today it is assumed that D. juarezii had, at one time, existed in Mexico and subsequently disappeared. Nurserymen in Europe crossbred this plant with dahlias discovered earlier; the results became the progenitors of all modern dahlia hybrids today.
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ritau
08-25
ritau
1. Spray the plants with a strong stream of water. Use a hose to spray the plants affected by aphids with cold water—this should knock the aphids right off. A hard rainstorm can also wash the aphids off of the plant. - While you want there to be water pressure, make sure you don’t damage the plants by setting the pressure too high. - Repeat as needed to remove aphids when they crop up. 2. Remove the aphids using your hands. If you see a cluster of aphids on a plant, you can swipe them off using your fingers. When you brush the aphids off, drop them into a soapy bucket of water to kill them. - If the aphids have infested an entire leaf or stem, snip off the section using scissors or pruning shears and drop it in the soapy bucket of water. - Wear gloves to protect your hands. 3. Dust the plants with flour to help deal with an aphid invasion. Take a cupful of flour from your pantry or kitchen and bring it out to your garden. Use your hands to evenly sprinkle the plants affected by aphids, giving them a fine layer of flour. - You don't have to coat the entire plant in flour, just the spot where the aphids are gathering. - Ingesting the flour will constipate the aphids. 4. Wipe the plants down with a mild soap and water. Mix together a few drops of a mild dish detergent with a cup of water. Dip a rag or paper towel into the mixture, using it to gently wipe down the stem and leaves of the plant affected by the aphids. - Make sure you wipe both sides of the leaves.
5. Mix together essential oils to use on the plants. Combine peppermint, rosemary, thyme, and clove oils in a bowl or cup, using 4-5 drops of each one. Pour the mixture into a spray bottle with water in it before shaking it all together. Spray the water and oil mixture onto plants that aphids have been eating. - Designate 1 spray bottle as your essential oil sprayer. The oils tend to perfume and permeate the plastic, making them less than ideal for other uses going forward. 6. Create a homemade garlic spray to use on the aphids. Do this by chopping up 3-4 cloves of garlic before mixing them with 2 teaspoons (9.9 ml) of mineral oil. Leave the mixture alone for 24 hours before straining out the garlic chunks. Pour the mixture into a spray bottle with 16 ounces (450 g) of regular water and 1 teaspoon (4.9 ml) of dish soap before spraying the garlic concoction onto the plants. - You can also make a tomato leaf spray to use on the plants. 7. Spray neem oil onto plants affected by aphids. By mixing neem oil with a little bit of water, you’ll create an organic concoction that helps repel aphids. Pour the water and neem oil into a spray bottle and apply it to sections of the plant that are affected by aphids. - Find neem oil at a home and garden store, some big box stores, or online. Note that neem oil will perfume any sprayers for a long time. It’s best to designate a particular bottle for this use. - You can also use horticultural oil to spray onto the plants.
8. Enlist an insecticidal soap to help control aphids. These soaps can be bought from a gardening supplier or online. Read the instructions to find out how much of the soap to mix with water before spraying it on the plants to help fend off aphids. - These soaps are designed to kill the aphids. - Insecticidal soaps are less toxic to mammals (humans and pets) than chemical insecticides. That said, follow the manufacturer’s directions about any safety precautions or gear you should wear when using them.
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ritau
08-23
ritau
1. Decide how much money you want to spend. Various types of pots will cost different amounts of money. Terracotta pots and plastic pots are typically the most affordable types of pots that you can get. Cast iron, concrete, and glazed ceramic pots are often the most expensive. Determine how much money you have in your budget, and look for pots that you can afford. 2. Consider purchasing terracotta pots. Many terracotta pots are ornate and can add to your interior decor. The subtle colors of the material match well with many different plant types. On the downside, the material is also somewhat more fragile than other pots and has to be brought indoors during the winter. 3. Get glazed ceramic pots to add a splash of color. If your primary goal is to add to your decor, you should choose a ceramic pot that matches with the scenery. Glazed ceramic pots come in a wide variety of colors and shapes. Select a container that matches the aesthetic of your apartment, garden, or house. 4. Purchase concrete or cast iron pots for durability. If you are housing plants that are meant to be permanent outdoor fixtures in your landscaping, concrete and cast iron pots are the best options. These pots will be able to withstand harsh weather and won't degrade or break down quickly. 5. Get a pot with proper drainage. Regardless of the type of plant, improper drainage or overwatering can cause water to build on the bottom of the pot which can lead to rot or mold. To avoid this, look for pots that have drainage holes and remember to buy a saucer with the pot at the time of purchase. This will ensure that your plant receives the right amount of drainage.
6. Get a larger pot for bigger plants. The larger your plant, the bigger the pot that you'll need. Getting a pot that's too big for the plant you are growing is a waste of money while getting a pot that's too small could result in an unhealthy plant. - If you are growing eggplant, broccoli, or peppers, you should get 18-inch (45.7 cm) 14 or 15-gallon (53-56.8 L) pots. - Some fruits and vegetables, including raspberries, cucumbers, and summer squash, require larger 24-inch (61 cm) 24 or 25-gallon (90.8-94.6 L) pots. - Get a very large pot for trees and big shrubs. 7. Get a smaller pot for smaller fruits and herbs. Smaller fruits and herbs, including strawberries, chives, and parsley, only need 10-inch (25.4 cm) 2.5 or 3-gallon (9.5-11.4 L) pots in order to thrive. Other vegetables like collards, spinach, and arugula require slightly bigger 14-inch (35.6 cm) 6 or 7-gallon (22.7-26.5 L) pots. 8. Use a pot that matches the needs of the plant. Some plants, like succulents or some vegetables and fruits, require better drainage than other plants in order to thrive.Other, larger shrubs and trees require larger pots because their root systems are bigger. Think of what your plant needs in order to survive and choose a pot that will encourage growth. - Herbs like rosemary, sage, and thyme thrive in terracotta pots because they do well in dry environment. 9. Imagine how the plant will look in the pot. Large shrubs look bad in narrow pots while low-growing plants often look bad in larger or wider pots. Think about how your plant will grow out, and get a pot that matches the size and shape of the plant. 10. Pick a pot that matches the garden's style. Determine what kind of look you are going for in your garden. If you are going for a more traditional look, you should select a pot with earth tones or natural colors. If you are going for a sleek look, a black glazed ceramic pot might work best. Think of your garden and pick a pot that suits the design there. 11. Choose a subtle color. Bright colors can be jarring and bring attention off your plant and onto the pot. Avoid brightly colored pots or neon color pots, unless you want your garden to be eccentric. If you want to add contrast in your garden, go with more muted colors like buttermilk, dark chocolate, or white. 12. Measure your backyard. Some larger pots may not even fit in the space that you intend them to, so make sure you measure the area with a yardstick or measuring tape before purchasing your pot. A lot of small pots may make your garden look cluttered if you have a smaller garden. If you are working with a larger sized garden, choose a larger centerpiece to bring attention to it.
13. Select a textured pot to fill in a small space. A textured pot can give the illusion of space in a smaller, flatter area. You can also get a pot that has interesting textures to add a splash of personality to your garden. - There are cement, ceramic pots, and terracotta pots that are created with different textures. - Look for pots that have ornate designs for a more refined or chic garden. - Pots with simple textures, like stippling, are also an option.
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ritau
08-20
ritau
Succulents are cute, versatile plants that can thrive both indoors and out! They make perfect indoor houseplants for small spaces, provided that you have a sunny windowsill. Get your set-up ready first by choosing a type of succulent, a well-drained container, and a well-draining soil. Then carefully pot your succulent in its new home as soon as possible to help it thrive. Care for your succulent by providing it with plenty of sunlight and a bit of water whenever the soil feels dry. 1. Choose a Zebra Plant or Gollum Jade succulent if you’re a beginner. While succulents are relatively easy to grow indoors, some varieties are easier than others! Stick to the Haworthia, Jade, or Gasteria varieties if you are unsure about what types to start with. All of these types are relatively drought-resistant and tend to grow well in indoor environments. -If you’re in doubt about what sort of succulent to choose, pick one with green leaves such as agave or aloe. Succulents with green leaves tend to be the most forgiving and grow best indoors, compared to the purple, grey, or orange-leaved varieties. -Zebra Plants have glossy green leaves with silver veins, creating a zebra-like appearance. They also have bright yellow flowers when they bloom. -Gollum Jade succulents have green, tube-shaped leaves with red tips. Small white flowers form in winter. 2. Choose a pot slightly larger than your succulent, and make sure it has draining holes. You’ll find a wide variety of different terra-cotta pots available at your local gardening center! Pick a container that is just a bit bigger than the succulent to start with. Terra-cotta pots are ideal because they’re breathable, dry well, and draw water away from the soil. You can also choose a ceramic, metal, or plastic pot if you prefer, provided that it has good drainage. -Holes for water drainage are essential, as succulents need to dry out their roots in order to survive. The roots will begin to rot otherwise. -Succulents tend to grow as big as the pot they’re in. -Glass pots don’t tend to work well for succulents, as there usually aren’t drainage holes.
3. Pick a soil with 1⁄4 in (0.64 cm) particles to provide the best drainage. Succulents thrive in soils that drain well, so you need to pick a loosely compacted soil that will draw the water away. You can either choose a specialty succulent soil such as a cactus mix or make your own succulent-friendly soil. Simply mix 4 parts of regular gardening soil with 1 part of pumice, perlite, or turface to create a gritty, chunky mix. -Crushed lava is also a good option. 4. Remove the succulent from the nursery pot within 24 hours of getting it. Succulents are often sold in small, plastic pots with very poorly drained soil. In order for your succulent to thrive, it needs to get out of that soil as soon as possible! Squeeze the plastic pot and gently pull the succulent upwards to remove it. If the succulent feels stuck, use scissors to cut the plastic pot away from the roots. 5. Suspend the succulent in the new pot as you fill it with soil. Succulent roots tend to be quite shallow and brittle, so do your best to protect these as you go about planting. Gently fill the sides of the pot with the soil, being careful not to damage the roots. Continue supporting the succulent until the pot is full and the succulent feels secure. - If you're having trouble getting the soil around the roots, use your fingers to push and arrange the soil. 6. Space the succulents apart if you're planting more than 1 in a pot. Succulents don’t mind sharing a pot as long as each plant has breathing space. Leave a gap that's approximately 3–4 in (7.6–10.2 cm) between each succulent to ensure that the air can flow well and that each plant gets plenty of light. -Outdoor succulents are fine being clumped close together because there is greater light and air flow in outdoor environments. -Succulents naturally grow in warm, arid climates, which is why they require good air circulation to survive. 7. Keep the succulent in a bright spot with at least 6 hours of sun per day. Generally, indoor succulents love bright light and will thrive. Place the succulent on a sunny south or west-facing windowsill to ensure that it gets plenty of sun. It's okay if the succulent doesn't get full sun all day long, provided that it gets a minimum of 6 hours. -If you notice the leaves are getting scorched, try using a sheer curtain to provide the succulent with a bit of protection. 8. Get a pitcher, watering can, or pipette to water the succulent. Succulents do best when the water is delivered directly to the soil rather than drenched over the whole plant. Find a tool that works for the size of your succulent. For example, pitchers or watering cans are good for larger succulents, while pipettes are best for very young or small plants.
9. Give the succulent water every 1-3 weeks, whenever the soil feels dry. The easiest way to kill an indoor succulent is by overwatering! Feel the soil every 3-4 days to check the moisture level. Only water the succulent when the water feels completely dry and never when it’s damp or wet. -How often you need to water your succulent depends on the variety, the climate, and the size of the plant. When you first get the plant, check the moisture level regularly until you work out what frequency is best. 10. Water the succulent until you see water exiting the drainage holes. Hold the pot over a sink while you water it and keep an eye on the water flow. Use the pitcher, watering can, or pipette to add water directly into the soil and stop the flow immediately when you see the water leaving the container.
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ritau
08-19
ritau
A mango is a juicy stone fruit (drupe) produced from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit. Most of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. The genus belongs to the cashew family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are native to South Asia, from where the "common mango" or "Indian mango", Mangifera indica, has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most widely cultivated fruits in the tropics. Other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, Mangifera foetida) are grown on a more localized basis. Worldwide, there are several hundred cultivars of mango. Depending on the cultivar, mango fruit varies in size, shape, sweetness, skin color, and flesh color which may be pale yellow, gold, or orange. Mango is the national fruit of India, Haiti, and the Philippines, and the national tree of Bangladesh. It is the summer national fruit of Pakistan. The English word "mango" (plural "mangoes" or "mangos") originated from the Tamil word manga (or mangga) during the spice trade period with South India in the 15th and 16th centuries. Mango trees grow to 35–40 m (115–131 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The trees are long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft), with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots and anchor roots penetrating deeply into the soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–13.8 in) long, and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark, glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–15.7 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild, sweet fragrance. Over 500 varieties of mangoes are known, many of which ripen in summer, while some give a double crop. The fruit takes four to five months from flowering to ripen. The ripe fruit varies according to cultivar in size, shape, color, sweetness, and eating quality. Depending on cultivar, fruits are variously yellow, orange, red, or green. The fruit has a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and does not separate easily from the pulp. The fruits may be somewhat round, oval, or kidney-shaped, ranging from 5–25 centimetres (2–10 in) in length and from 140 grams (5 oz) to 2 kilograms (5 lb) in weight per individual fruit. The skin is leather-like, waxy, smooth, and fragrant, with color ranging from green to yellow, yellow-orange, yellow-red, or blushed with various shades of red, purple, pink or yellow when fully ripe. Ripe intact mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 cm (1.6–2.8 in) long. Mangoes have recalcitrant seeds which do not survive freezing and drying. Mango trees grow readily from seeds, with germination success highest when seeds are obtained from mature fruits. Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars; some, such as Alphonso, have a soft, pulpy, juicy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others, such as Tommy Atkins, are firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, with a fibrous texture. The skin of unripe, pickled, or cooked mango can be eaten, but it has the potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva, or tongue in susceptible people.
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, pickles, dhals and other side dishes in Bengali cuisine, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A summer drink called aam panna comes from mangoes. Mango pulp made into jelly or cooked with red gram dhal and green chillies may be served with cooked rice. Mango lassi is popular throughout South Asia, prepared by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with buttermilk and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with chapatis or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called mangada. Andhra aavakaaya is a pickle made from raw, unripe, pulpy, and sour mango, mixed with chili powder, fenugreek seeds, mustard powder, salt, and groundnut oil. Mango is also used in Andhra Pradesh to make dahl preparations. Gujaratis use mango to make chunda (a spicy, grated mango delicacy). Mangoes are used to make murabba (fruit preserves), muramba (a sweet, grated mango delicacy), amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango), and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle and alcohol. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola. Mangoes are often prepared charred in Hawaii. Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce, vinegar, soy sauce, or with dash of salt (plain or spicy). Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes. Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper, and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice. The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of the common mango is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (330 kJ (79 kcal) per 100 g). Fresh mango contains a variety of nutrients (right table), but only vitamin C and folate are in significant amounts of the Daily Value as 44% and 11%, respectively. The mango is the national fruit of India, Pakistan, and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of Bangladesh. In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually covered by news agencies. The mango has a traditional context in the culture of South Asia. In his edicts, the Mauryan emperor Ashoka references the planting of fruit- and shade-bearing trees along imperial roads: "On the roads banyan-trees were caused to be planted by me, (in order that) they might afford shade to cattle and men, (and) mango-groves were caused to be planted." In medieval India, the Indo-Persian poet Amir Khusrow termed the mango "Naghza Tarin Mewa Hindustan" – "the fairest fruit of Hindustan". Mangoes were enjoyed at the court of the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khijli, and the Mughal Empire was especially fond of the fruits: Babur praises the mango in his Babarnameh, while Sher Shah Suri inaugurated the creation of the Chaunsa variety after his victory over the Mughal emperor Humayun. Mughal patronage to horticulture led to the grafting of thousands of mangoes varieties, including the famous Totapuri, which was the first variety to be exported to Iran and Central Asia. Akbar (1556–1605) is said to have planted a mango orchard of 100,000 trees at Lakhi Bagh in Darbhanga, Bihar,while Jahangir and Shah Jahan ordered the planting of mango-orchards in Lahore and Delhi and the creation of mango-based desserts.
The Jain goddess Ambika is traditionally represented as sitting under a mango tree. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations such as Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram and silk sarees. In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits, along with banana and jackfruit, for their sweetness and flavor.This triad of fruits is referred to as ma-pala-vazhai. The classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes. Mangoes were popularized in China during the Cultural Revolution as symbols of Chairman Mao Zedong's love for the people.
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ritau
08-16
ritau
1. Choose a lettuce variety that thrives indoors. Although most lettuce plants can stay healthy indoors, you'll have better success with some varieties over others. Buy any of these lettuce varieties, which are known for growing well inside, from a garden center or plant nursery: -Garden Babies -Merlot -Baby Oakleaf -Salad Bowl -Lollo Rosa -Black-Seeded Simpson -Tom Thumb -Red Deer Tongue 2. Fill a pot with a seed starting soil mix. Seed starting mixes are lightweight, they help your plants’ roots grow, and they're well-draining to prevent overwatering. If you cannot find a seed starting mix, you can also create a soil made from equal parts peat moss or coir, vermiculite, and sand. -Each lettuce plant requires 4–6 in (10–15 cm) of space and a depth of about 8 inches (20 cm). Choose a pot that can accommodate these measurements. -Purchase pots with drainage holes on the bottom. Place a saucer underneath the pot to catch draining water. -You can buy seed starting soil mixes from most plant nurseries or garden centers. 3. Plant your seeds approximately 1 in (2.5 cm) apart. Dig a 4–6 in (10–15 cm) deep hole and place your seeds inside at about 1 in (2.5 cm) apart. Limit your seeds to 4 per pot to avoid overcrowding the lettuce as it grows. If you want to plant more than 4 seeds, prepare several pots ahead of time. 4. Sprinkle your seeds lightly with potting soil and water. Take a handful of potting soil and gently sprinkle it over the newly-planted seeds. Fill a spray bottle with water and gently mist the seeds to avoid washing them away. 5. Plant lettuce seedlings if you don't want to wait for seeds to sprout. If you don't want to wait for seeds to sprout, you can plant lettuce seedlings instead. Use the same technique as you would for lettuce seedlings, planting no more than 4 per pot. -You can buy lettuce seedlings at many plant nurseries or garden centers
6. Mist your seeds daily until they sprout into seedlings. When they sprout, give your lettuce at least 1 in (2.5 cm) of water per week. Poke your finger in the soil once or twice a day and water your lettuce whenever the soil feels dry. -The soil should be moist but not waterlogged. -Another way to test the moisture level of soil is lifting up the pot. If it feels heavy, the soil is saturated with water. 7. Grow your lettuce in room temperature conditions. Lettuce grows best at temperatures around 65–70 °F (18–21 °C). Turn on the air conditioner or heater as needed to keep your plants at an even, sustainable temperature. -If the weather is warm or cool enough outside, you can move your plants outdoors periodically to get fresh air. 8. Place your lettuce plant near a sunny window or a fluorescent grow light. Lettuce plants grow best with direct sunlight. If you're in a climate with very little sun, purchase a grow light from a plant nursery and position it about 12 inches (30 cm) overhead. Lettuce plants need at least 12 hours of direct sunlight a day, with 14-16 hours the preferred amount. Keep in mind that plants grown under a grow light generally need more time under the light than they would with natural sunlight. Aim closer to 14-16 hours instead of 12+ hours if you're using a grow light. 9. Water your lettuce whenever the leaves wilt. Lettuce plant leaves visibly wilt when they are thirsty. If your plant's leaves droop, water the lettuce until its soil is moist, but not soaking wet or waterlogged. -The hotter the temperatures, the more often you will need to water your lettuce 10. Fertilize your lettuce 3 weeks after planting it. Lettuce needs nitrogen-rich soil to grow, so spray a liquid fertilizer on the plant 3 weeks after you planted it, or when the first leaves grow on the plant. Spray the fertilizer mainly near the soil, avoiding the lettuce leaves to prevent burning them. -Use a liquid fertilizer. Granular fertilizers need to be mixed into the soil. -Organic alfalfa meal or a nitrogen-rich, slow-release fertilizer both work well with lettuce. -You can also use fish or seaweed emulsion fertilizers but they can emit a strong odor and are less recommended for indoor lettuce plants 11. Begin harvesting your lettuce 30-45 days after planting. On average, lettuce takes about 30-45 days after you plant the seeds to mature. Make a note on your calendar to begin harvesting after about 30 days has passed. -Indoor lettuce plants grow and mature continually, so you can continue harvesting your plant after you've picked it for the first time. -Mature indoor lettuce usually grows to about 4 inches (10 cm) tall. -See How to Harvest Romaine Lettuce for specific instructions relating to this type of lettuce. 12. Harvest your lettuce in the morning. Morning is when your plant's most hydrated and at its strongest. If possible, harvest your plant before the late morning or afternoon to attain a healthier yield. -If you can't harvest in the morning, avoid mid-to-late afternoon, which is when your plant's least hydrated. 13. Cut off the outer leaves. Do not harvest your indoor lettuce plant all at once. As long as you continue taking care of it, you can harvest it for several months. Cut 3-4 of the outer leaves at a time with garden shears or scissors, leaving the rest of the plant to heal and grow back later on. -Avoid picking the lettuce's crown or center. Limit yourself to the outer leaves to boost its overall harvesting yield.
14. Refrigerate your lettuce for 5-8 days after harvesting. Depending on the variety, lettuce can last anywhere between 3-10 days in the refrigerator. Check how long your specific variety lasts for and, after placing the lettuce in the fridge, plan to use it by its expiration date. -If you don't think you'll use your lettuce in 5-8 days, wait a few days before harvesting your plant. 15. Harvest your lettuce again in about 2 weeks. Your plant requires about 2 weeks to heal and grow more leaves before it is ready to harvest again. After your first time harvesting, wait 2 weeks in-between harvesting to keep your plant healthy and able to grow more leaves. -Wait at least 2 weeks before harvesting young plants, which may take time to grow strong after being harvested. -Sow additional seeds every 2 weeks to extend your harvest.
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ritau
08-12
ritau
1. Test the soil every day before you water the plant. Stick your finger 1 inch (2.5 cm) into the soil to feel for moisture. If it feels dry or if you rub your fingers together and see bits of dry soil flaking off, it's time for a good watering. -If it's damp, wait 12 to 24 hours before checking the soil again. -Daily watering is especially important during hot summer months. -Most fuchsias like to be watered every day, but under or over-watering can cause the leaves to wilt so it's wise to check the soil first. -Hanging baskets dry out faster than standing pots, so you may need to test the soil twice a day (especially on hot or dry days). 2. Pour water onto the soil until it drains from the bottom of the pot. Start by pouring water onto the base of the plant and then water the entire surface of the soil. Keeping pouring until you notice water dribbling out of the bottom of the pot. -The goal is to keep the soil evenly moist but not sopping wet. -If you don't see water coming out of the drainage holes, they may be clogged or the soil may not be draining properly (in which case, you should re-pot the plant). 3. Water the plant 2 to 3 times a week in the fall. Once summer is over, start watering your fuchsia plant every other day or just twice a week. Always test the soil with your finger first—if it's bone dry, go ahead and water it. If it's even the slightest bit damp, wait another day and check again. Withholding water in the fall will prepare the plant for winter dormancy so it can reenergize and grow beautiful blooms in the spring! 4. Limit your waterings to 8 fl oz (240 mL) every 3 to 4 weeks in the winter. Let the soil get relatively dry starting in mid-November to early March (the exact months will vary depending on where you live). A good rule of thumb is to water it with 8 fluid ounces (240 mL) of water every 3 weeks or each month, but you can also feel the soil with your finger to see if it's bone dry. If it is, go ahead and water it and wait another 3 to 4 weeks before watering it again. The plant will be in its dormant phase during the winter and your job is to make sure the soil doesn't get dusty-dry—a little dry is okay.
5. Fertilize the plant once a week during spring and summer months. Use a fertilizer with equal parts nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium—a 20-20-20 or 16-16-16 blend is perfect. The amount of fertilizer you need to use depends on the size of the pot, but you should always read the instructions on the package. -For instance, if you're fertilizing a 12 in (30 cm) pot, you might use 7 drops of liquid fertilizer for each 33 fluid ounces (980 mL) of water or sprinkle 3 to 4 tsp (15 to 20 g) of granular fertilizer on top of the soil. If your plant is outside, stop fertilizing it 2 weeks before you bring it inside for the colder months. Bone meal also makes an excellent fertilizer for fuchsia. You can buy it at any garden supply store.
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